Benign Tumors Of The Cervix
Endocervical polyps are the most common benign neoplasms of the cervix. Please note that the word neoplasm refers to a cancerous growth. They are focal hyperplastic (abnormal cell growth) protrusions of the endocervical folds, including the epithelium and substantia propria. They are most common in the fourth to sixth decades of life and usually are asymptomatic but may cause profuse leukorrhea or postcoital spotting. (blood after orgasm)
Grossly, they appear as typical polypoid structures protruding from the cervical os. At times, endometrial polyps protrude through the cervical os. They cannot be distinguished from endocervical polyps by gross appearance. Microscopically, a variety of histologic patterns are observed, including (1) typical endocervical mucosal (2) inflammatory (granulation tissue) (3) fibrous (4) vascular (5) pseudodecidual (6) mixed endocervical and endometrial (7) pseudosarcomatous.
Treatment is removal, which can usually be accomplished by twisting the polyp with a dressing forceps if the pedicle is slender. Smaller polyps may be removed with punch biopsy forceps. Polyps with a thick stalk may require surgical removal.
Microglandular hyperplasia Microglandular hyperplasia refers to a clinically polypoid growth measuring 1-2 cm. It occurs most often in women who are on oral contraceptive therapy or Depo-Provera and in pregnant or postpartum women. It reflects the influence of progesterone. Microscopically, it consists of tightly packed glandular or tubular units, which vary in size, lined by a flattened-to-cuboidal epithelium with eosinophilic granular cytoplasm containing small quantities of mucin. Nuclei are uniform, and mitotic figures are rare. Squamous metaplasia and reserve cell hyperplasia are common. An atypical form of hyperplasia can be mistaken for clear cell carcinoma. Unlike clear cell carcinoma, it lacks stromal invasion, has scant mitotic activity, and lacks intracellular glycogen
Squamous papilloma Squamous papilloma is a benign solid tumor typically located on the ectocervix. It arises most commonly as a result of inflammation or trauma. Grossly, the tumors are usually small, measuring 2-5 mm in diameter. Microscopically, the surface epithelium may show acanthosis, parakeratosis, and hyperkeratosis. The stroma has increased vascularity and a chronic inflammatory infiltrate. Treatment is removal. The squamous papilloma resembles a typical condyloma acuminatum but lacks the koilocytes microscopically.
Smooth muscle tumors (leiomyomas) These benign neoplasms may originate in the cervix and account for approximately 8% of all uterine smooth muscle tumors. They are similar to tumors in the fundus. When located in the cervix, they usually are small, ie, 5-10 mm in diameter. Symptoms depend on size and location. Microscopically, leiomyomas resemble the typical smooth muscle tumor found in the uterine corpus. Treatment is required only for those patients who are symptomatic. The cervical leiomyoma is usually part of the spectrum of uterine smooth muscle tumors.
Mesonephric duct remnants When present, mesonephric duct remnants are typically located at the 3-o'clock and the 9-o'clock positions, deep within the cervical stroma. They usually are incidental findings and are present in approximately 15-20% of serially sectioned cervices. As the name implies, mesonephric duct remnants are vestiges of the mesonephric or Wolffian duct. Usually, they are only a few millimeters in diameter and seldom are grossly visible. Microscopically, they consist of a proliferation of small round tubules lined by epithelium that is cuboidal to low columnar. The tubules tend to cluster around a central duct. The cells lining the tubules contain no glycogen or mucin, but the center of the tubule may contain a pink material that contains glycogen or mucin.
Endometriosis When present in the cervix, endometriosis is usually an incidental finding. Grossly, it may appear as a bluish-red or bluish-black lesion, typically 1-3 mm in diameter. Microscopically, the implants are typical endometriosis, consisting of endometrial glands, endometrial stroma, and hemosiderin-laden macrophages. The implants usually gain access to the cervix during childbirth or previous surgery.
Papillary adenofibroma This neoplasm is uncommon. Grossly, it appears as a polypoid structure. Microscopically, the neoplasm contains branching clefts and papillary excrescences lined by mucinous epithelium with foci of squamous metaplasia. A compact, cellular, fibrous tissue composed of spindle-shaped and stellate fibroblasts supports the epithelium. The stroma is devoid of smooth muscle, and mitoses are rare. Similar growths occur in the endometrium and the fallopian tubes.
Heterologous tissue Heterologous tissue includes cartilage, glia, and skin with appendages. This type of tumor rarely occurs in the cervix. While they may arise de novo, these tumors probably represent implants of fetal tissue from a previous aborted pregnancy. Hemangiomas Hemangiomas in the cervix are rare in occurence and are similar to those found elsewhere in the body.
Gregory Mburu us a medical professional and a part time marketr. He post information about breast cancer and other gynaecological neoplastic disorders at http://breast-cancer-information.blogspot.com/
Causes and Types of Cerebral Palsy
In the case of Cerebral Palsy there is no one cause of this severe condition. There are many things that may increase the risk of this condition but will not cause cerebral palsy all the time. In the majority of cases and average of seventy percent, it results from brain injury before the child is even born this is known as congenital cerebral palsy this would be present from birth but may take months even years to diagnose depending on how severe it illness is. There is also a chance of acquired cerebral palsy which could happen through there being a case of meningitis or brain injuries.
Molluscum Contagiosum Virus (MCV) Treatment Information - But First, What Is Molluscum?
Molluscum contagiosum treatment is certainly possible with the correct treatment information.
Seroquel Side Effects: Effects of Seroquel Worth the Risk?
Seroquel is an atypical antipsychotic drug that is used to treat hallucinations, delusions and confusion caused by psychotic conditions such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Atypical antipsychotics are not SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) or benzodiazepines. Atypical antipsychotics like Seroquel affect only certain parts of the brain, blocking the input of serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, histamine, and muscarine. The benefit to atypical antipsychotics is that they are non-habit forming and are not as frequently abused as normal antipsychotics.
Medical Error Crisis
The unfortunate truth about medical errors is that they plague the poor and uninsured, reflecting the great medical inequality in our country. For those who do not consider medical errors to be a problem, consider this: medical errors kill between 44,000 and 98,000 Americans every year. This reflects the fact that medical errors kill more people per year than breast cancer, AIDS, or motor vehicle accidents. Doctors complain of inflated medical malpractice insurace costs, but medication-related errors for hospitalized patients cost around $2 billion annually.
Blood Pressure Treatment: High and Low Blood Pressure Tips and Medication!
High blood pressure is on the rise worldwide. But, doctors believe that small lifestyle changes can go a long way in preventing this silent killer.
Understanding Tumescent Liposuction
Tumescent liposuction is done using a local aesthetic. A large volume of saline solution containing the aesthetic and a drug called "Epinephrine" is injected directly into the areas where there are excessive fatty deposits. Epinephrine is important in the surgical process because it shrinks capillaries and minimizes blood loss. Minor sedation may be required for those who feel a little nervous about the surgery; however the patient is usually completely conscious during the surgery.
Prevent Foot Problems When Walking
Americans are on the go. According to a NSGA Survey, 71 million American adults are exercise walkers, making walking the top sport in the United States. Taking steps daily to improve health will help with America's obesity epidemic. Sixty five percent of Americans are overweight, which is linked to diabetes, heart disease, arthritis and some types of cancer. Walking an extra 2000 steps a day is equivalent to walking a distance of 1 mile and to burning 100 calories. Burning an extra 100 calories a day is equivalent to losing about 10 pounds in a year.
UltraCET: The Dynamic Duo Of Prescription Pain Control Medications
Remember the last time you stubbed your toe? OUCH! It's painful. But a stubbed toe usually doesn't send us running to the medicine cabinet, since we know that the pain will pass within a few minutes.
Lotronex Lawyer: Lotronex Side Effects Lawsuit
Even in clinical trials, Lotronex displayed a tendency towards causing ischemic colitis in patients. From the February in which Lotronex was approved until June, the FDA received seven reports of serious complications of constipation leading to hospitalization. Surgery was required to relieve some cases of extreme Lotronex constipation. Lotronex Medication Guides were issued under regulations that became effective in 1999 when Lotronex patients ended up in hospitalization and requiring surgical procedures for constipation. Since Lotronex is a drug used to treat diarrhea, these surgeries were obviously not necessary to treat conditions held before taking the drug.
Arizona Drug Rehab: Finding Help in Arizona
The state of Arizona has one of the worst drug problems in the United States. Historically and currently, the state is known as a transhipment location for a variety of drugs, including heroin, cocaine and marijuana, which are imported from other countries. As a result, these and other drugs are widely available in the state, and their abuse is common. There are probably few states that require the presence of rehabilitation centers as this one does - thankfully Arizona drug rehab centers are some of the best in the world.
Cetyl Myristoleate Seperating Fact From Fiction
I am a strong believer in Cetyl Myristoleate for the treatment of arthritis. For the last three years I have been researching and writing about Cetyl Myristoleate. I am constantly searching for new research and contact and interview every doctor I can find that works with it. The purpose of the article is to evaluate the claims made about Cetyl Myristoleate on the myriad of web sites that sell it. It you want more information on the research that documents the effectiveness of Cetyl Myristoleate then do a search for my article, "Cetyl Myristoleate: Science or Speculation".
The Arthritis Pain Reliever... A New Program That Just Might Make You Younger!
For years, it's been known that regular daily exercise is one of the most important activities that people can engage in to promote good health.
The Power of Ice
Using ice to treat injuries is one of the oldest methods of pain control. Proven to be safe and effective at reducing swelling, relieving pain and decreasing muscle spasms, ice therapy is an easy self-care technique that anyone can administer. Every mother knows to put ice on a bruised knee after a soccer game or on a teething toddler's tender gums. But do you really know how ice works?
Vioxx Recall leads to Vioxx Lawsuits
Vioxx is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammagory drug (NSAID) that reduces inflammation, pain, fever, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis stiffness, and menstrual pain. However, Vioxx has been shown to cause blood clots, heart attacks, stroke, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, kidney damage and other dangerous and potentially deadly side effects.
Vioxx is a prescription medication that has been used primarily in the treatment of signs and symptoms of arthritis, but has also been prescribed to treat acute pain in adults and menstrual pain in women. It is a Cox-2 selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug or NSAID. Other Cox -2 selective NSAIDs on the market are Celebrex and Bextra. Vioxx is also related to nonselective NSAIDs such as ibuprofen and naproxen.
Emollients and Lubricant Drugstore Laxatives
Stool Softener Laxatives - Emollients
OxyContin Addiction: Doctors & Drug Lords
OxyContin is a narcotic drug, an opiate, that has been approved by the FDA to legally treat chronic pain. Chronic pain is documented medical condition, a progressive disease of the nervous system and spine that causes constant a patient to experience constant, excruciating pain. Chronic pain is caused by the failure of the body's internal pain control systems and is accompanied by changes of the chemical and anatomical makeup of the spinal cord. Left untreated, the condition will spread to unaffected areas. A patient suffering from chronic pain does not produce enough natural opiates, so a pharmaceutical opiate like OxyContin is an effective treatment for the disease.
Orthotics: Prefab or Custom-Made?
If you take a simple stroll down the foot product isle at your local drug store you will find an array of foot products and inserts. You will find inserts for cushion, for comfort, for support and for control. Many questions may cross your mind. What are the differences? Is the $15 insert better than the $7 insert? Are these orthotics? Will they help my foot pain? You may take the time to study the package details closely, but in most instances it doesn't really matter which pair you grab. Most of the inserts at the local drug store are essentially the same.
The Highway to Health - Bumped Heads
I recently had a reader send me this comment:
Exposing the Miracle Cure
It was Saturday morning and while I was making breakfast, letting the cats outside, and watering my half-dead plants, I had the TV on. Saturday morning TV is usually composed of nothing but infomercials and today was no different.
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